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Copyright © Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan Jl. Pramuka No. 33, Jakarta Telp. + - Fax. + 58 Tahun dan Pasal. 39 Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 13 Tahun . menjadi kewenangan daerah paling lambat 1 Januari menjadi. on Village Article 72, the village also manages the finances derived from .. Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor Tahun tentang Pedoman.
Prasasti ini menjelaskan tentang pendirian bangunan suci Candi Bhadraloka untuk Dewa Siwa. Kala itu, daerah Boko disebut sebagai Walaing. Dasarnya, dari prasasti Mantyasih di masa Raja Balitung, yang menyebut sang penulis yakni Pu Tarka berasal dari Walaing.
Pada masa ini, ada temuan langgam Hindu berupa yoni, tiga candi kecil, dan tiga arca dewa yakni Balarama, Durga, dan Ganesha. Dari beberapa artikel, salah satu temuan menarik adalah prasasti emas. Benda ini ditemukan di salah satu penampungan air di kompleks Boko.
Sistem Keuangan Desa (Siskeudes)
Prasasati tersebut berbunyi, om rudra ya nama swaha. Kalimat ini merupakan pujian pada Dewa Rudra, nama lain dari Siwa.
Situs Ratu Boko menyimpan rahasia lain: adanya bukti relasi manusia masa lampau dengan alam juga teknologi masa itu. Keduanya mengungkap adanya interaksi dan adaptasi antara masyarakat masa lampau dengan lingkungan. Ini terlihat dari karakter lingkungan dan teknologi dalam menggunakan dan mengolah unsur-unsur alam.
Lam. Hal 46,47.docx - -46XVIII FORMAT BERITA ACARA...
Background characteristics and ANC use of mother in Indonesia. Mounting evidence from developed and developing countries shows that adolescent mothers are at high risk of suffering adverse health outcomes for both their babies and themselves Fatusi and Hindin ; Gortzak-Uzan et al.
Among both age groups examined in the current study, ANC use was lower than the recommended national standards. Our analysis found a number of factors that had a significant relation to the use of ANC for the different age groups.
For adolescent girls, only socio-economic status had a positive association with four ANC visits. Multiple logistic regression model based on the frequency of ANC received of both groups.
Adolescent girls with middle-income status were two times as likely to have the recommended number of ANC visits than those with low-income status. Meanwhile, young women in the high-income group were three times as likely to have four ANC visits compared to those in the low-income group. Similarly, Singh et al.
The government of Indonesia is now seriously addressing the issue of health inequality between provinces. This may be linked with the accessibility of ANC services in different areas, with women in urban areas finding these easier to access than those in rural areas. For example, data from the Ministry of Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration noted that the average distance to a midwife practice within rural areas was 34 km, while nationally it was only 16 km Kemendesa-PDT Moreover, Indonesia has about 74, rural villages with In , the Indonesian government launched a village-based midwife program in response to high mother and infant death rates.
Within 7 years every village in Indonesia thus had a skilled birth attendant or midwife MoH However, despite these efforts inequalities between various regions still remain, and thus policy makers should focus on devel- oping innovative or non-standard approaches to address this issue, based on the actual situations in various areas, with the current study providing findings to inform these approaches. This may be because women who have higher educational attainment may have acquired more knowledge about maternal and child health and the potential benefits of ANC, thus resulting in a higher level of ANC use Titaley, Dibley, and Roberts In this context it should be noted that Indonesia is on track to increase access to education among women across the nation.
However, even though Indonesia has a 9-year compulsory education system, 2. It is thus suggested that by further working to improve the education level of its citizens, and meeting the specific needs of target populations, the government can get closer to achieving its goals with regard to reducing adolescent pregnancy, as well as maternal and infant death rates.
Mass media exposure was found to be significantly associated with the use of ANC among young women, consistent with previous studies Navaneetham and Dharmalingam ; Pallikadavath, Foss, and Stones , as the communication channel used to convey health-related messages plays an important role in the decision to use health-care services Grilli et al.
Moreover, health messages need to be tailored to the target populations, particularly when these are illiterate women in Indonesia. The current study found that young women who had their first birth between ages 20—24 years were more likely to have four ANC visits than women who had more births by this age.
Earlier research showed that women were significantly more likely to use antenatal health-care services for their first deliveries Chakraborty et al.
The time and resource constraints faced by women with higher parity have also been reported to have an association with the low use of ANC in larger families Elo ; Wong et al. The results of the present study showed that the income status of mothers was significantly associated with the use of ANC for both age groups. Low economic status is generally a barrier to accessing health-care services Celik and Hotchkiss ; Overbosch et al. This issue is especially important in Indonesia, which has around 28 million people living in poverty, or To address this issue, the government launched a Universal Delivery Care Jampersal plan, which allows pregnant women to deliver their children in a health-care facility for free MoH This plan also covers ANC services for up to four visits, with more visits available to those women who have complications during preg- nancy.
One of the solutions that has been suggested to address this issue is to rely on the initiative of the local communities. To achieve this, however, each community needs sufficient knowledge, and the health workers who are on the frontline of such efforts, for instance, nurses, midwives, and other health workers, need to be empow- ered to convey health messages to the community.
The results of this study call for a deeper debate on early marriage and pregnancy, and the negative outcomes of these life events on every level of the community.
In Indonesia, the minimum age of marriage for girls is 16 years, and for boys it is 19 years Government of Indonesia This study showed that the mean age at marriage was The Indonesian government has claimed that, with the current population make-up, the nation is expected to have a demographic dividend in the near future Kemenkokesra Taking into account the results of this study, future policies Downloaded by [National Cheng Kung University] at The present study, makes several noteworthy contributions to the issue of ANC use among adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia.
The ANC use rates for both age groups were found to be below the national standard, and this issue needs to be urgently addressed. Current government policies and programs should thus target low-income households, with an emphasis on the sexual and reproductive rights of adolescent girls. Limitations The Indonesia Demographic Health Survey IDHS provided limited infor- mation on certain topics, and this restricted available detailed data and may have resulted in certain uncontrolled factors confounding the results.
In addition, all variables were assumed to be fixed over a period of 5 years prior to the survey ceteris paribus. In addition, this study used a cross-sectional design, which prohibited the assessment of the temporal and thus potentially cauasal relations among the variables.
Conclusion The results of this study suggest that any strategy created to improve antenatal care services should take into account the socio-economic context of adolescent and young mothers to achieve the maximum impact. In particular, vulnerable individuals who have low socio-economic status, low education levels, and higher parity should be the focus of efforts to increase access to the Universal Health Coverage plan. Moreover, in the long term a petition to change the marriage law to increase the minimum age of marriage may be useful to protect the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and young women.
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